A research on the connection between religion and evolution was conducted by an Oxford University Professor.
Based on this research, it appears that fear of gods could have helped shape mankind into what we are today. This means that Religion could very well be the result of evolution.
The fear of God’s wrath could have played a key role in the evolutionary development of humans.
If belief in divine retribution is so entrenched among humans it is because evolution, writes Dominic Johnson, an expert in evolutionary biology and in international relations from Oxford University, in his new book ‘God is watching you’.
God Is Watching You proposes a new theory of the origins and evolution of not only religion, but also human cooperation and society
It explores how fear of supernatural punishment exists within and outside of religious contexts.
It uses an interdisciplinary approach that draws on new research from anthropology, evolutionary biology, experimental psychology, and neuroscience.
According to Professor Johnsons theory, the feeling of being watched by a powerful supernatural being could have been the cause that our ancestors behaved in a less selfish way. Johnson believes that belief in divine punishment would have helped enhance cooperation among humans, one of the key traits that is based on the evolutionary success of our species. Likewise, Professor Johnson explains why fear of punishment would have become a more important force in religion than other aspects, such as love and altruism. According to him, this is mainly due to the way our brains establish links.
Professor Johnson says, in his new book ‘God is Watching You’ that that enigmatic belief in divine punishment is something that has been hardwired into us by ‘evolution’ and is one of the main causes that led to the creation and development of ALL world religions.
‘The ability to anticipate rewards or punishments arising from our behavior would clearly have been favored by Darwinian natural selection, because it promoted survival and reproduction,’ he said.
‘I argue this extended to the anticipation of supernatural reward and punishment.’
‘God-fearing people were better able to avoid raising the ire of their fellow man, lowering the costs of real world sanctions, and raising the rewards of co-operation.’
‘It offers a striking twist on the old science and religion debate – religion is not an alternative to evolution, it is a product of evolution.’
According to psychological research, it is shown that negative events in human life tend to have a much more powerful impact on our thinking and behavior than positive ones.
Professor Johnson added: ‘When humans evolved the capacity for complex language and theory of mind – the ability to know what others’ know – our behavior became increasingly transparent and selfish behavior and social transgressions risked increasing costs from retaliation or reputational damage.’
‘Avoiding these costs ushered in a new era in which the suppression of selfishness became a vital ingredient of an individual’s evolutionary success.’
‘The idea that one’s good and bad deeds will be observed, judged and rewarded or punished by God or some other supernatural agent is a recurring feature of virtually all of the world’s religions, both past and present.’
‘The looming threat of supernatural punishment deterred selfish behavior and increased cooperation, and this was a good thing for individuals as well as society.’