Ancient civilizations possessed advanced knowledge which enabled them to create, build and produce many things which can’t be replicated today.
They had advanced knowledge in the fields of metallurgy, mathematics, chemistry, astronomy, and more.
Some of their accomplishments will be listed in this article.
Ancient hydro technology – Peru has a severe problem with polluted water. This is the reason why a water utility company in Lima plans to use a water canal system built by the Wari culture in 500 AD.
Steel forging techniques – Steel forged in ancient times is the strongest steel ever made. It was used for swords and many other objects.
Damascus steel was made of steel from Asia known as Wootz steel. This steel was produced during 1100 and 1700 AD.
The process responsible for making the Damascus steel was figured out in laboratory settings by examining the electron microscopes.
Structures made of concrete – Structures made of concrete by the Romans have endured thousands of years and still remain almost intact.
Ancient concrete was more durable than any other mixture made today. The Romans made this highly durable concrete using lime, volcanic rock, and seawater. It was also more eco-friendly because it released less carbon into the atmosphere during the process.
Roads were built fast – The roads are the most important connection between cities. The Main Andean Road built during the Inca Empire was more than 30,000 kilometers long. The Incas managed to build this magnificent infrastructure within a century.
Romans were also known for their extensive network of roads which covered 1.7 million square miles of territory.
Ancient stone cutting technique – Ancient stone-cutting technique was used during the creation of numerous magnificent structures across the world. One of those amazing structures is Puma Punka. The stones were cut with a precision of a diamond cutting tool. This ancient stone cutting technique was never replicated.
Agricultural systems – Ancient civilizations invented a chinampa agricultural system, which is also known as the floating gardens.
This system was built on a marshy lakebed. The fence was built around enclosed area and filled with mud and decaying vegetation. The fenced areas were surrounded by canals, so it looked like they were floating on water. Willows were planted in order to stabilize the plot. They were properly irrigated in order to achieve good harvest.
The sophisticated drainage system was used to remove excess amounts of water, which was accumulated during the rainy season.
The Aztecs used human excrement to fertilize the crops and managed to reduce the amount of waste in the water.
Every attempt of replicating agricultural system typical of ancient Mexico failed.
Advanced masonry work – Ancient civilizations are known for their large dry stone walls. These structures can be seen today in Machu Picchu and Sacsayhuaman in Peru.
The ancient masons managed to place huge blocks together in a tight fit without any use of mortar. Scientists are amazed by their ability to create something that still endures.
City planning – Scientists are amazed by many ancient cities. One of these is a 5,000-year-old site of Mohenjo Daro in Pakistan. This archeological site revealed that the houses had toilets and brick-built bathrooms. People had access to public supplies of drinking water in cisterns and wells. They had a sewer system which led waste water into well-built brick sewers.
Another city in Peru known as Caral also has amazing structures, extensive agriculture, built water supply and developed an intricate irrigation system.
Knowledge of astronomy – Ancient civilizations, including ancient Greece, Native Americans, Japanese and other, had extensive knowledge of astronomy. Evidence of this can be seen in many artifacts from that time. The question remains how they were able to calculate and record cosmological events with such precision.
Weapons – Even though modern society has created many weapons that are superior to those made in the ancient times, scientists are still intrigued by a number of powerful ancient weapons.
According to ancient sources, Archimedes made a heat ray weapon. It is believed that the weapon consisted of large reflectors which purpose was to focus sunlight onto approaching ships, causing them to catch fire.
This weapon was recreated by Greek scientists Ioannis Sakkas in 1973. He used 70 mirrors and succeeded to cause fire to a plywood model of a Roman warship.